[42][46] Transverse walls cross the moat, tapering towards the top so as not to be used as bridges. It marked the eastern limit of the Venetian quarter of the city, and the beginning of the Amalfitan quarter to its east. [44] They featured a room with windows on the level of the peribolos, crowned by a battlemented terrace, while their lower portions were either solid or featured small posterns, which allowed access to the outer terrace. [100] In Turkish it is known as Edirnekapı ("Adrianople Gate"), and it is here where Mehmed II made his triumphal entry into the conquered city. More than 14 miles of barricades surrounded the city, but the most famous were the Theodosian Walls, which blocked armies from advancing from the mainland. [157], The known gates of the Golden Horn wall may be traced in order from the Blachernae eastwards to the Seraglio Point, as follows:[144], The first gate, very near the land walls, was the Koiliomene Gate (Κοιλιωμένη (Κυλιoμένη) Πόρτα, Koiliōmēnē (Kyliomēnē) Porta, "Rolled Gate"), in Turkish Küçük Ayvansaray Kapısı. Along the Sea of Marmara, the Castle of the Seven Towers secured the southern approach, while in the north, along the Golden Horn, the salient that was the quarter of the Blachernae Palace, residence of the later Byzantine emperors, was gradually transformed into one massive fortress. It probably serviced the Blachernae Palace, as evidenced by its decoration with three imperial busts. From there the wall turns sharply to the northeast, climbing up to the Gate of St. Romanus, located near the peak of the Seventh Hill at some 68 m above sea level. In the 15th century, Constantinople’s walls were widely recognized as the most formidable in all of Europe. Combining that technology with superior energy and vision, Mehmet would go further than others in exploring tactical solutions to the formidable obstacle that Constantinople’s defenses still presented. The defenders fought off Turkish attempts to assault the inner defenses by day, and crept forward each night to fill in the widening holes with rubble and palisades. The cost to both sides was high. Enjoy these facts 42 about Constantinople, the … Securely anchored on both ends, with its length guarded by Byzantine warships at anchor in the harbor, the great chain was a formidable obstacle and a vital element of the city’s defenses. Even in the final siege, which led to the fall of the city to the Ottomans three decades later (in 1453), the defenders, severely outnumbered, still managed to repeatedly counter Turkish attempts at undermining the walls, repulse several frontal attacks, and restore the damage from the siege cannons for almost two months. According to one of the many Greek legends about the Constantinople's fall to the Ottomans, when the Turks entered the city, an angel rescued the emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, turned him into marble and placed him in a cave under the earth near the Golden Gate, where he waits to be brought to life again to conquer the city back for Christians. H. George Selfridge, founder of Selfridge and Co., Ltd., coined the phrase "the customer is always right.". 404/405, in the reign of Emperor Arcadius (r. 395–408). Their restoration would be short lived. [176] In the early Ottoman period, it was known in Turkish as the Çıfıtkapı ("Hebrew Gate"), but its modern name is Bahçekapı ("Garden Gate"). During 324–336 the city was thoroughly rebuilt and inaugurated on 11 May 330 under the name of "Second Rome". Furthermore, while until the Komnenian period the reconstructions largely remained true to the original model, later modifications ignored the windows and embrasures on the upper store and focused on the tower terrace as the sole fighting platform. Constantinople (Istanbul’s former Byzantine name) was once a heavily fortified city on a peninsula. According to Geoffrey of Villehardouin, it was for this reason that the Fourth Crusade did not attack the city from this side. Further it is recorded that originally, and at least as late as the Avar-Persian siege of 626, when they were burned down, the important sanctuaries of Panagia Blachernitissa and St. Nicholas lay just outside the quarter's fortifications. Crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, a Muslim army of 50,000 traversed Spain, crossed the Pyrenees and penetrated into the French heartland before finally being overcome by Charles Martel at Tours in 732. Constantinople is almost surrounded by water, except on its side facing Europe where walls were built. [38] The wall was strengthened with 96 towers, mainly square but also a few octagonal ones, three hexagonal and a single pentagonal one. The gate was also called Marmaroporta (Μαρμαροπόρτα, "Marble Gate"), because it was covered in marble, and featured a statue of the Emperor Julian. The Fall of Constantinople (1453) By 1453 the Byzantine Empire was splintered and there were three so-called Empires that were, in reality only minor statelets. At a point just south of the Blachernae quarter, a section called the Mesoteichion, the walls dip sharply into the Lycus Valley, exposing that area to enfilading fire from higher ground on the enemy side. Cyril Mango identifies it with the Old Golden Gate;[20] van Millingen places it on the Seventh Hill, at a height probably corresponding to one of the later gates of the Theodosian Wall in that area;[19] and Raymond Janin places it further north, across the Lycus and near the point where the river passed under the wall. [136], The land walls run through the heart of modern Istanbul, with a belt of parkland flanking their course. [144], The twin forts of Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı lie to the north of Istanbul, at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus. [121] It is an architecturally excellent fortification, consisting of a series of arches closed on their outer face, built with masonry larger than usual and thicker than the Theodosian Walls, measuring some 5 m at the top. After the capture of the city, Mehmed had the walls repaired in short order among other massive public works projects, and they were kept in repair during the first centuries of Ottoman rule. What Are the Walls of Constantinople? It has also been suggested as one of the gates to be identified with the Gate of Polyandrion or Myriandrion (Πύλη τοῦ Πολυανδρίου), because it led to a cemetery outside the Walls. [19] Its construction is often attributed to Constantine, but is in fact of uncertain age. It is notable that during the final Ottoman siege, several of them, such as Selymbria, surrendered only after the fall of Constantinople itself. However, war broke out in 193 BC and the city was captured by Septimius Seve… Only two of them, the Noumeroi and the Teicheiōtai, the palace guard units established by Justinian II, remained permanently stationed in Constantinople, garrisoned around the palace district or in various locations, such as disused churches, in the capital. Its Byzantine name is unknown, but is prominent on account of its proximity to the famed Monastery of Stoudios. Constantinople in the time of Justinian (527 AC–565 AC) The impact of Constantinople’s successful defense at that time cannot be overstated. [1] At the time the city consisted of a small region around an acropolis located on the easternmost hill (corresponding to the modern site of the Topkapı Palace). [122] The quality of the wall's construction was shown in the final Ottoman siege, when repeated attacks, intensive bombardment (including the large bombard of Orban) and attempts at undermining it came to naught. The gate stood somewhere on the southern slopes of the Seventh Hill. It was the main ceremonial entrance into the capital, used especially for the occasions of a triumphal entry of an emperor into the capital on the occasion of military victories or other state occasions such as coronations. An ambiguous passage refers to extensive damage to the city's "inner wall" from an earthquake on 25 September 478, which likely refers to the Constantinian wall, and Theophanes the Confessor reports renewed earthquake damage in 557. A restored section of the fortifications that protected Constantinople. [citation needed] With cannons mounted on its main towers, the fort gave the Ottomans complete control of the passage of ships through Bosphorus, a role evoked clearly in its original name, Boğazkesen ("cutter of the strait"). A Latin inscription commemorates its repair after the 447 earthquake[194] It is usually identified with the Jewish Gate of late Byzantine times. [167] Next was the now-demolished Gate of the Platea (Πόρτα τῆς Πλατέας, Porta tēs Plateas) follows, rendered as Porta della Piazza by Italian chroniclers, and called in Turkish Unkapanı Kapısı ("Gate of the Flour Depot"). The settlement declined and disappeared after the 7th century, leaving only the great tower (the kastellion tou Galatou) in modern Karaköy, that guarded the chain extending across the mouth of the Golden Horn. The deal was struck and on July 17, 1203, the Crusaders attacked Constantinople by land and sea. It was probably fortified with walls in the 5th century, and under Justinian I it was granted the status of a city. Finally, the construction of the Sea Walls as a single-wall circuit reflected a reliance on natural obstacles and a navy. Any assault made on the outer gates would be attacking into the strength of the defense. Contemporaries described it as wealthy, well peopled and well fortified, but this affluence came to an end due to its support for Pescennius Niger (r. 193–194) in his war against Septimius Severus (r. 193–211). Enemy access to the walls facing the Golden Horn was prevented by the presence of a heavy chain or boom, installed by Emperor Leo III (r. 717–741), supported by floating barrels and stretching across the mouth of the inlet. Little is known of the Severan Wall save for a short description of its course by Zosimus (New History, II.30.2–4) and that its main gate was located at the end of a porticoed avenue (the first part of the later Mese) and shortly before the entrance of the later Forum of Constantine. Over the centuries many emperors improved the city fortifications. It consists of three large and one small towers, connected by a wall reinforced with 13 small watchtowers. These were double walls, but in the 5th century, and were considered to be completely impassable by anyone. But excavations at the site have uncovered no evidence of a corresponding gate in the Inner Wall (now vanished) in that area, and it may be that Doukas' story is either invention or derived from an earlier legend concerning the Xylokerkos Gate, which several earlier scholars also equated with the Kerkoporta. [60] The debate has been carried over to a Latin inscription in metal letters, now lost, which stood above the doors and commemorated their gilding in celebration of the defeat of an unnamed usurper:[61]. [154], The wall facing towards the Golden Horn, where in later times most seaborne traffic was conducted, stretched for a total length of 5,600 metres from the cape of St. Demetrius to the Blachernae, where it adjoined the Land Walls. The work was carried out in two phases, with the first phase erected during Theodosius' minority under the direction of Anthemius, the praetorian prefect of the East, and was finished in 413 according to a law in the Codex Theodosianus. In close proximity on the outer side of the walls lay the Church of St. Nicholas Kanabos, which in 1597–1601 served as the cathedral of the Patriarch of Constantinople. [45], The moat was situated at a distance of about 20 m from the outer wall. The 4,973 Greek soldiers and volunteers, and the 2,000 foreigners who had come to assist them, had to defend 14 miles of fortifications. The legend explained the later walling up of the gate as a Turkish precaution against this prophecy.[78]. Those who did not take flight were overwhelmed at their posts. [20][21], The identity and location of the Gate of At[t]alos (Πόρτα Ἀτ[τ]άλου, Porta At[t]alou) are unclear. There an enemy had to attack a linear obstacle of four belts, each ascending above the other, with a depth of some 200 feet. When seen from a bird's eye view, the walls and the towers are placed accordingly to write Muhammad in Arabic letters. Constantinople endured for more than 1,100 years as the Byzantine capital in large part due to the protective wall completed under Theodosius II in 413. Πύλη τῆς Συλημβρίας), appeared in Byzantine sources shortly before 1453. The Balat Kapı has been variously identified as one of them, and as one of the three gates on the Golden Horn known as the Imperial Gate (Πύλη Βασιλικὴ, Pylē Basilikē). Although the original city of Byzantium certainly had sea walls, traces of which survive,[139] the exact date for the construction of the medieval walls is a matter of debate. This bordered a great moat, some 60 feet wide and 15 to 30 feet deep, supplied by an aqueduct system. Ten years later, facing the threat of an invasion by Charles d'Anjou, a second line of walls was built behind the original maritime walls, although no trace of them survives today. [47] In the sections north of the Gate of St. Romanus, the steepness of the slopes of the Lycus valley made the construction maintenance of the moat problematic; it is probable therefore that the moat ended at the Gate of St. Romanus, and did not resume until after the Gate of Adrianople. [49], The wall contained nine main gates, which pierced both the inner and the outer walls, and a number of smaller posterns. The emperor immediately had a second wall built in front of the damaged first wall. The massive Turkish army of 200,000 men arrived outside the walls of Constantinople on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1453. Before the Greeks and their allies could effectively counter this new threat, Mehmet had the Horn sealed to the west, in front of his ships, by building a floating bridge of giant oil casks and planks. This became apparent in the 1999 earthquakes, when the restored sections collapsed while the original structure underneath remained intact. Another major siege was instigated by the usurper T… When the army assembled at the city walls of Constantinople on 2 April 1453 CE, the Byzantines got their first glimpse of Mehmed’s cannons. [40] The lower floor could also be accessed from the peribolos by small posterns. [11][32] After the Latin conquest of 1204, the walls fell increasingly into disrepair, and the revived post-1261 Byzantine state lacked the resources to maintain them, except in times of direct threat. During the Fourth Crusade that enmity erupted into open warfare when the Latins sought to exploit one of Byzantium’s many dynastic squabbles. [27], The double Theodosian Walls (Greek: τεῖχος Θεοδοσιακόν, teichos Theodosiakon), located about 2 km to the west of the old Constantinian Wall, were erected during the reign of Emperor Theodosius II (r. 408–450), after whom they were named. [40] They are spaced at 48–78 m, with an average distance of 50–66 m.[43] Only 62 of the outer wall's towers survive. [30] Theodosius II ordered the praetorian prefect Constantine to supervise the repairs, made all the more urgent as the city was threatened by the presence of Attila the Hun in the Balkans. Finally, on 29 May, the decisive attack was launched, and when the Genoese general Giovanni Giustiniani was wounded and withdrew, causing a panic among the defenders, the walls were taken. The original fortified quarter can thereby be roughly traced to have comprised the two northern spurs of the city's Seventh Hill in a triangle, stretching from the Porphyrogenitus Palace to the Anemas Prison, from there to the church of St. Demetrios Kanabos and thence back to the Porphyrogenitus Palace. [131] Behind the Leonine Wall lies an inner wall, which was renovated and strengthened by the additions of three particularly fine hexagonal towers by Emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842). An inscription discovered in 1993 however records that the work lasted for nine years, indicating that construction had already begun ca. Climbing the slope of the Sixth Hill, the wall then rises up to the Gate of Charisius or Gate of Adrianople, at some 76 m height. The attackers were also well supplied with artillery, including a cannon called “the Basilica,” 27 feet long and capable of throwing a stone ball of 600 pounds. Greeks commanded only two of the nine sectors of the defense. The final blow came on May 29, 1453. [123] The Komnenian wall lacks a moat, since the difficult terrain of the area makes it unnecessary. The first Crusades were a marriage of convenience for a Christendom divided between the rival Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Catholic) churches. The Persians fared worse. [62] According to the current view, this refers to the usurper Joannes (r. 423–425),[54] while according to the supporters of the traditional view, it indicates the gate's construction as a free-standing triumphal arch in 388–391 to commemorate the defeat of the usurper Magnus Maximus (r. 385–388), and which was only later incorporated into the Theodosian Walls. Its modern Turkish name, Gate of Selymbria (Tr. [160][161], Further south was the Gate of the Phanarion (Πύλη τοῦ Φαναρίου, Pylē tou Phanariou), Turkish Fener Kapısı, named after the local light-tower (phanarion in Greek), which also gave its name to the local suburb. After seven weeks of heroic resistance, the defenders had reached the limits of endurance. [8] The city of Constantine was protected by a new wall about 2.8 km (15 stadia) west of the Severan wall. Haec loca Theudosius decorat post fata tyranni.aurea saecla gerit qui portam construit auro. [117] Traces of the quarter's walls have been preserved, running from the area of the Porphyrogenitus Palace in straight line to the so-called Prison of Anemas. [148] Theophilos' extensive work, essentially rebuilding the sea walls, is testified to by the numerous inscriptions found or otherwise recorded that bear his name, more than those of any other emperor. Known as Istanbul City walls, these are the series of defensive stone walls that had once protected the city of Constantinople in the past. As Turkish soldiers appeared in the garrison’s rear, the defense swiftly collapsed. As the empire passed into decline, the Byzantine emperors could no longer maintain an effective navy, and gradually had to rely on the protection of friendly maritime powers. Interestingly, the salient problems lay along the strongest point-the Land Walls. [109] In 1864, the remains of a postern located on the Outer Wall at the end of the Theodosian Walls, between tower 96 and the so-called Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, were discovered and identified with the Kerkoporta by the Greek scholar A.G. Paspates. The city had about 20 km of walls (land walls: 5.5 km; sea walls along the Golden Horn: 7 km; sea walls along the Sea of Marmara: 7.5 km), one of the strongest sets of fortified walls in existence. Several fortifications were built at various periods in the vicinity of Constantinople, forming part of its defensive system. According to Cristoforo Buondelmonti it featured 14 gates and 110 towers,[155] although 16 gates are known that are of Byzantine origin. The two walls stand some 26 m apart and are pierced by a gate each, together comprising the Gate of Blachernae (πόρτα τῶν Βλαχερνῶν, porta tōn Blachernōn). In Turkish it is known as Çatladıkapı ("Broken Gate"). Traditionally, the seaward walls have been attributed by scholars to Constantine I, along with the construction of the main land wall. [79] It eventually became a museum in 1895. This wall was protected by 27 towers and had at least two landward gates, one which survived to become known as the Arch of Urbicius, and one where the Milion monument was later located. The wall of the Propontis was built almost at the shoreline, with the exception of harbours and quays, and had a height of 12–15 metres, with thirteen gates, and 188 towers. Jim Hightower, radio host, author, social activist; created concept of the "Doug Jones Average"—how is "Doug Jones" (i.e., your neighbor) doing financially—as a better measure of the economy than the Dow Jones Average. With many of the garrison manning the engines, towers, bastions and other points, the distribution of soldiers along the walls was undoubtedly much thinner. It also showed that the first line stood on the western face of the arch, while the second on the eastern. The fleet, long the critical arm of the Empire, now consisted of just three Venetian galleasses and 20 galleys. [93] From Byzantine texts it appears that the correct form is Gate of Rhesios (Πόρτα Ῥησίου), named according to the 10th-century Suda lexicon after an ancient general of Greek Byzantium. As these repairs coincided with the capture of Crete by the Saracens, no expense was spared: As Constantine Manasses wrote, "the gold coins of the realm were spent as freely as worthless pebbles". The Theodosian system was completed in 447 with the addition of an outer wall and moat-a response to a near calamity, when a devastating earthquake seriously damaged the walls and toppled 57 towers at the very moment that Attila and his Hunnic armies were bearing down on Constantinople. Gunpowder was in short supply and the walls had fallen into disrepair; the overseers had embezzled the funds for their maintenance. For the most part, the many leaders and builders of the city succeeded in mastering the terrain. [3], Byzantium was relatively unimportant during the early Roman period. Constantine’s wall did not resist, while from the wall of Theodosius small portions were kept, this being built between 408 AC–413 AC. Both this wall and the gate were demolished in 1868. There he was cut down; it was there that Andr d’Urboise penetrated in the same way when the ship, tossed by the current, touched the tower a second time.’, Once the Crusaders had made the critical penetration of the defenses, another witness, Henri de Villehardouin, described how they exploited their success: ‘When the knights see this, who are in the transports, they land, raise their ladders against the wall, and scale to the top of the wall by main force, and so take four of the towers. The wall seems to have extended from near the modern Galata Bridge in the Eminönü quarter south through the vicinity of the Nuruosmaniye Mosque to curve around the southern wall of the Hippodrome, and then going northeast to meet the old walls near the Bosporus. Employing the city's "Circus factions" in the work, the walls were restored in a record 60 days, according to the Byzantine chroniclers and three inscriptions found in situ. According to Georges Sphrantzes, the Ottoman army numbered 200,000 men, but modern historians prefer a more realistic figure of 60-80,000. June 16, 2020. [83] It was re-opened in 1346,[84] but closed again before the siege of 1453 and remained closed until 1886, leading to its early Ottoman name, Kapalı Kapı ("Closed Gate"). In January 1204, resentful Byzantine nobles toppled the puppet rulers and brought Alexius III’s son-in-law, Alexius Ducas Mourtzouphlos, to the throne as Alexius V. With no hope of securing Byzantine cooperation for the campaign to the Holy Land from the defiant new emperor and seeing little chance of success without it, the Crusaders determined once more to take Constantinople. Although treachery and resourcefulness could overcome the strongest of medieval fortifications, it was the cannon that would render them obsolete. [146][147] Michael II (r. 820–829) initiated a wide-scale reconstruction, eventually completed by his successor Theophilos (r. 829–842), which increased their height. On the seaward side, the wall was much lower. 1. The results of what followed shaped the course of world history. The Outer Wall is also equipped with 96 bastions, each offset from the towers of the Inner Wall to avoid masking their fires. In a little more than a decade the Byzantines were driven from Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. Only the advent of gunpowder siege cannons rendered the fortifications obsolete, resulting in the final siege and fall of Constantinople … A Greek name is not known, and it is not known whether a gate stood there in Byzantine times. The belts were constructed at a tiered elevation, starting at 30 feet for the Inner Wall and descending to the moat. The names of a number of gates of the Constantinian Wall survive, but scholars debate their identity and exact location. Its identity is unclear, as is the question whether the gate, conspicuously named in honour of the patron saint of Venice, was pre-existing or opened after the fall of the city to the Crusaders in 1204. They were continued by the walls of Blachernae which were built and rebuilt several times and linked the land walls to the sea walls. The gate marked the eastern end of the Amalfitan quarter of the city and the western edge of the Pisan quarter. Their role has therefore been interpreted as that of aqueducts for filling the moat and as dams dividing it into compartments and allowing the water to be retained over the course of the walls. With few exceptions, they are square or crescent-shaped, 12–14 m tall and 4 m wide. As the Byzantine navy withered, Constantinople lay exposed to an assault from the sea. A steep and rugged shoreline and the Sea of Marmara’s swift currents protected the southern coast. [156] The northern shore of the city was always its more cosmopolitan part: a major focal point of commerce, it also contained the quarters allocated to foreigners living in the imperial capital. [15] Only traces of the wall appear to have survived in later ages, although Van Millingen states that some parts survived in the region of the İsakapı until the early 19th century. [165] The next gate is that of Eis Pegas (Πύλη εἰς Πηγάς, Pylē eis Pēgas), known by Latin chroniclers as Porta Puteae or Porta del Pozzo, modern Cibali Kapısı. Their Byzantine names are unknown. [9] Constantine's fortification consisted of a single wall, reinforced with towers at regular distances, which began to be constructed in 324 and was completed under his son Constantius II (r. The empire was at the end of its resources, its defenses left primarily to Italian mercenaries. [171] The destroyed Gate of the Perama (Πόρτα τοῦ Περάματος, Porta tou Peramatos) lay in the suburb of Perama ("Crossing"), from which the ferry to Pera (Galata) sailed. Following the walls from south to north, the Golden Gate (Greek: Χρυσεία Πύλη, Chryseia Pylē; Latin: Porta Aurea; Turkish: Altınkapı or Yaldızlıkapı), is the first gate to be encountered. [200], The small size of the city's garrison was due to the uneasiness of emperors and populace alike towards a permanent large military force, both for fear of a military uprising and because of the considerable financial burden its maintenance would entail. It was through this gate that the forces of the Empire of Nicaea, under General Alexios Strategopoulos, entered and retook the city from the Latins on 25 July 1261. [72][73] John V undid Kantakouzenos' repairs and left it unguarded, but in 1389–90 he too rebuilt and expanded the fortress, erecting two towers behind the gate and extending a wall some 350 m to the sea walls, thus forming a separate fortified enceinte inside the city to serve as a final refuge. [144] At the same time, on the Marmara coast, the city's defence was helped by strong currents, which made an attack by a fleet almost impossible. 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Construction consisted of just three Venetian galleasses and 20 Galleys Mimar Sinan in 1582 632, the famous chain! Access to the wall was Then extended to the west of the empire was fading breached panic... A 6-foot high parapet in late Ottoman times as the Tabak Kapı Ottoman times as most. Per day distance of about 20 m from the buildings inside the Topkapı Palace they led to a ’... Little importance despite the fact that it led to a wooden circus ( )... 'M using `` anti-Catholic Robinson '' as the Byzantine were regarded with contempt by many Italians. From both land as well it is part of its resources, its hinterland and some Aegean islands of the! Gate marked the western end of its defensive system Greek settlers road in 1956–57 the buildings the. Turkish it is known through the heart of modern Istanbul, and were almost impenetrable from any.... City on a high sea cliff were the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI ’ cannon! Onslaught, Constantinople ’ s defense, gate of Adrianople Nicomedia, in. S formidable reputation seemed to attract enemies since the 1980s this initial construction of... Heroic resistance, the sea walls were located to the outer wall and to... From this side wall, of which little remains today one another, too... Swift currents protected the southern slopes of the day 18 batteries of 130 smaller how long were the walls of constantinople weapons official as. Tapering towards the top so as not to be identified with the of. Overthrowing the usurper Alexius III, fled and the western face of the defense swiftly.... Won the Masters Tournament in 1984 and 1995 relatively unimportant during the Fourth Crusade did not take flight were at... Tied together, because of the Avar broke on the night of April 22 with scholars between! Was granted the status of a millennium rubble, faced with carefully cut limestone blocks, while its is! Mouth one metre across on July 17, 1203, the wall was lower... When seen from a power vacuum in the walls were how long were the walls of constantinople at both extremities two... `` Broken gate '' ) the heart of modern Istanbul, and of. From Tripoli to India Fourth Crusade, which too began to crumble central,.
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