Crop varieties can be genetically modified to resist specific pests and diseases. This volume reports on the productivity impacts of varietal improvement research conducted at a number of international centres affiliated with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Crop Variety Improvement 2. Homework Help; CBSE; Class 09; Science; What is crop variety improvement? Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity [Elektronisk resurs] the impact of international agricultural research / edited by R.E. With the help of seed banks, international organizations are working to preserve crop diversity. [2][3] If current trends persist, as many as half of all plant species could face extinction. Two of them are as follows: In India, a number of varieties have been developed by mutation breeding e.g., BGM 408 (Chick pea), Hans (pea), JRO 3690 (Jute), Sharbati Sonora, (Wheat), Jagannath (Rice), Co8152 (sugarcane) etc. [27] The FAO emergency relief and rehabilitation program is assisting vulnerable returnee populations in the African Great Lakes Region through mass propagation and distribution of CMD resistant or highly tolerant cassava. Crop diversity is the variance in genetic and phenotypic characteristics of plants used in agriculture. This is the simplest and oldest method of crop improvement practiced by farmers. By this technique, what we mean is the combination of desirable characteristics from many crops into a single hybrid crop. Taking advantage of known genetic diversity could facilitate this, and appropriate combinations were achieved through recombinations brought about by the sexual process (hybridization). This video is a part of Pebbles CBSE Syllabus Live Teaching Videos Pack. Polyploidy: Evenson Economic Growth Center Yale University New Haven Connecticut, USA and D. Gollin Department of Economics Williams College Williamstown Massachusetts, USA CABI Publishing 00 Crop Variety- Prelims 16/12/02 4:03 PM Page iii . Question 7. [25] ACMD is responsible for the loss of a million tons of cassava each year. The volume is the main product of… Movement of crop varieties from one environment into another within a country is … Genetically, these bananas are clones, and because of this lack of genetic diversity, are all susceptible to a single fungus, Fusarium oxysporum (Panama disease); large areas of the crop were destroyed by the fungus in the 1950s. The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee, WI). [15] Drought resistant plants can help save water and reduce the need for irrigation [14] while deeper rooting varieties can help stabilize soils; and varieties that are more efficient in their use of nutrients require less fertilizer. Utilization in Crop Improvement programme - Often the introduced material is used for hybridization with local varieties to develop improved varieties. 1 Thank You. In prehistory, human forebears in various parts of the world brought into cultivation a few hundred species from the hundreds of thousands available. Most crops are harvested as food for humans or fodder for livestock. The wise use of crop genetic diversity in plant breeding and genetic modification can also contribute significantly to protecting the biodiversity in crops. From these it is possible to understand the reasons for the improvements in yield. Herbivorous pest insects tend to become more abundant in monocultures. In addition, diversity of a harvested plant can be the result of genetic differences: a crop may have genes conferring early maturity or disease resistance[11] Such traits collectively determine a crop's overall characteristics and their future potential. [6] In 2016, 29% of wild relative plant species were completely missing from the world’s genebanks, with a further 24% represented by fewer than 10 samples. Check out my latest presentation built on emaze.com, where anyone can create & share professional presentations, websites and photo albums in minutes. Introduction to crop variety improvement [pic] The development of improved, fertilizer-responsive high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice during the early 1960s and their widespread adoptions by farmers, first in Asia and then in Latin America, marked the beginning of what is known as the Green Revolution. [2], In terms of produced weight, the following crops are the most important ones (global production in thousand metric tonnes):[3], Plant or animal product which can be grown and harvested. Furthermore it was possible to move useful genes by specialbreeding strategies. In Latin America, between 70% and 90% of beans are grown mixed with other crops such as maize and potatoes. More than 300 varieties have been developed through mutagenesis in various countries. This process can be continued until the plant breeder feels the resulting plants are ready to be sold as a new variety. Hybridisation is the crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to obtain crops having useful characteristics like disease resistance,good- quality and high yields. The Nobel laureate Norman Borlaug argued for action to ensure global food security. Crop variety improvement Crop Variety Improvement depends on finding a crop variety that can give a good yield. Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity: the impact of international agricultural research. Globally, the following crops contribute most to human food supply (values of kcal/person/day for 2013 given in parentheses): rice (541 kcal), wheat (527 kcal), sugarcane and other sugar crops (200 kcal), maize (corn) (147 kcal), soybean oil (82 kcal), other vegetables (74 kcal), potatoes (64 kcal), palm oil (52 kcal), cassava (37 kcal), legume pulses (37 kcal), sunflowerseed oil (35 kcal), rape and mustard oil (34 kcal), other fruits, (31 kcal), sorghum (28 kcal), millet (27 kcal), groundnuts (25 kcal), beans (23 kcal), sweet potatoes (22 kcal), bananas (21 kcal), various nuts (16 kcal), soybeans (14 kcal), cottonseed oil (13 kcal), groundnut oil (13 kcal), yams (13 kcal). Definition: Intellectual property. Most crops are harvested as food for humans or fodder for livestock. [2] One such step taken in the action against the loss of biodiversity among crops is gene banking. Log in. [18][19], Along with insect pests, disease is a major cause of crop loss. A new variety might, for example, be higher yielding, more disease resistant or have a longer shelf life than the varieties from which it was bred. definition: The growing of different kinds of crops on a piece of land in a preplanned succession is known as crop rotation. Crop variety improvement is the primary step to improve food crop production. Cross-pollinating plants that are similar cannot result in continued improvement. Crops may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database", version 4. Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Crops are increasingly grown in monoculture, meaning that if, as in the historic Great Famine of Ireland, a single disease overcomes a variety's resistance, it may destroy an entire harvest, or as in the case of the 'Gros Michel' banana, may cause the commercial extinction of an entire variety. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is a nonprofit organisation that works with partners to enhance crop quality and productivity, reduce producer and consumer risks, and generate wealth from agriculture, with the ultimate goals of reducing hunger, malnutrition, and poverty. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred. Over-irrigation, irregular sunlight can prolong ripening of crop which thus delays the harvesting time. Bt corn (maize) can however adversely affect non-target insects closely related to the target pest, as with the monarch butterfly. Ritik Sharma 2 years, 7 months ago. 2 Thank You. Corporate Author: Ebook Central Academic Complete., ProQuest (Firm) Other authors: Evenson, Robert E. … This is shown in a case study completed at Aarhus University in Denmark which used more robust maize. [28], A well known occurrence of disease susceptibility in crops lacking diversity concerns the 'Gros Michel', a seedless banana that saw world marketing in the 1940s. February 2003 | ePDF 9780851998534 | Format. Integrated Regional Information Networks, Nairobi, Kenya. The Global Crop Diversity Trust is an independent international organisation which exists to ensure the conservation and availability of crop diversity for food security worldwide. [11], Genetic diversity of crops can be used to help protect the environment. (b) Biotic and abiotic resistance: Crop should be resistant to biotic factors like diseases, insects, pests and abiotic factor like drought, salinity, heat, cold, frost and water logging. www.faostat.fao.org/site/591/default.aspx, IRIN "CONGO: Disease devastates cassava crop, threatens widespread hunger". Over 70% of all crop wild relative species worldwide were in urgent need of further collecting to improve their representation in genebanks, and over 95% were insufficiently represented with regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. The availability of water, soil pH level, and temperature similarly influence crop growth.[11]. In cross pollinated crops it is usually practiced for population improvement purposes, whereas in self pollinated crops it has only a limited use of maintaining purity of a variety. [24], Reports from Burundi and Angola warn of a threat to food security caused by the African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMD). Crop variety improvement: It can be done either by hybridisation or by introducing a gene. Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by -45%[9]), cassava (by -38%[9]), coconut, sorghum (by -52%[9]) and millets (by -45%[9]). The modern "global standard"[8] diet contains an increasingly large percentage of a relatively small number of major staple commodity crops, which have increased substantially in the share of the total food energy (calories), protein, fat, and food weight that they provide to the world's human population, including wheat, rice, sugar, maize, soybean (by +284%[9]), palm oil (by +173%[9]), and sunflower (by +246%[9]). [8][9][10], Within-crop diversity, a specific crop can result from various growing conditions, for example a crop growing in nutrient-poor soil is likely to have stunted growth than a crop growing in more fertile soil. Finally, crop improvement has flourished from genetic changes which have produced only small changes in yield and thus increases in crop yield of 5% in a new variety can be sufficient to ensure its widespread adoption. Evenson, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1934- (redaktör/utgivare) Gollin, Douglas (redaktör/utgivare) Publicerad: Wallingford, Oxon, UK ; … It is similar to its parents in all qualities, excepting dark green colour of foliage and hull colour. World Summit on Sustainable Development. Stable agroecosystems are biodiverse and contain sufficient numbers of natural enemies of crop pests, such as parasitoidal wasps which are able to control aphids and lepidopteran caterpillars. 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