Monitor the steam because: •Precipitation of silica forms silicate deposits on the Boiler deposits result from hardness salts, metallic oxides, silica and a number of other feed water contaminants that can enter the system. Reverse osmosis will also remove silica by 90-98%. ASME Suggested Boiler Water Limits for Industrial Water Tube Boiler: Table 3-15. This can be gained through external treatment equipment for make up water or monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination. Boiler Water Treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il continued Because of the associated corrosion problems, chelants are not the preferred treatment choice. Generally it is desirable to have a slightly high pH for boiler feed water. Note 2 - When feed water heaters are of copper or copper alloy constructions, the pH of the feed water shall be maintained between 8.5 and 9.2 while when feed water heaters Note 3 - Silica in Boiler Water - Lower concentration of silica may be advisable for steam of turbines, which generally requires less than 0.02 mg/l silica in steam. The percentage of impurity allowed in boiler water/steam is function of boiler operating pressure, so, more critical A After silica enters the boiler water, the usual corrective action is to increase boiler blowdown and then to correct the condition that caused the silica contamination. In the steam drum the feed water is then turned into steam from the heat. NS. ND. When you hear the term boiler water, this refers to any water that’s situated in a boiler or the pumps and piping surrounding the boiler for the main purpose of being evaporated into steam. Expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate in PPM. After the steam is used it is then dumped to the main condenser. Boiler feedwater is an essential part of boiler operations. Table 3-7. The amount of silica vaporized with the steam can be determined by measurement of boiler water silica. The percentage of impurity allowed in boiler water/steam is function of boiler operating pressure, so, more critical for high pressure boilers. An increase in temperature results in an increase in electrical conductivity. An exception is silica for which vaporous carryover can be substantial at lower On the right: Effect of pressure and boiler water pH on the volatility of silica. Its presence is highly objectionable as it forms a very hard scale in boilers and forms insoluble deposits on turbine blades. For a 180 bar operating pressure, in order to get a maximum of 5 ppb of SiO2 in the steam, the boiler water should not contain more than 100ppb of SiO2 if ideal boiler conditions are met. A Depending on the natural feed water alkalinity, it is often necessary to add an alkalinity builder in order to establish the correct boiler water chemistry to prevent corrosion and scale formation. Silica, in amounts ranging from less than 1 to over 100 ppm, is found in all natural water supplies. The proper boiler water silica level necessary to maintain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in Figure 18-4. Why A Boiler Feed Water System Matters. An exception is silica for which vaporous carryover can be substantial at lower pressures. It has been demonstrated that for any given set of boiler conditions using demineralized or evaporated quality make up water, silica is distributed between the boiler water and the stream in a definite ratio. For many years, boiler blowdown rates were established to limit boiler water contaminants to levels set by the American Boiler Manufacturers' Association (ABMA) in its Standard Guarantee of Steam Purity. This ensures that free carbon dioxide within the system becomes ‘fixed’. However, if the system dictates the use of chelating agents, it can feed The dissolved oxygen requirement explains the 20 ppb D.O. ASME Boiler Water Limits for Industrial Fire Tube Boilers ... Silica (ppm SiO 2) Total alkalinity < 350 < 300 < 250 < 200 < 150 < 100. BOILER WATER TDS max (ppm) ALK max (ppm) TSS Max (ppm) Conductivity max (µmho/cm) Silica max (ppm Si0 2) 700-3500 350 15 1100-5400 150 600-3000 300 10 900-4600 90 500-2500 250 8 800-3800 40 200-1000 200 3 300-1500 30 150-750 150 2 200-1200 20 125-625 100 1 200-1000 8 100 Not specified 1 150 2 50 Not specified n / a 80 1 The conditions under which vapour silica carryover occurs have been investigated and documented. The design specification of the boiler and DM plant has to provide DM water less than < 0.02 ppm (20 ppb) of Silica (Sio2), but it was providing water, more than > 0.02ppm (20 ppb) of Silica. •Silica –normal saturated steam should be < 20 ppb in most boilers. NS. If boiler water is at a very low hardness, then raw water may be. Table 3-13. Steam thus produced can be used as a heating medium or as a working fluid in a prime mover, where it turns thermal energy to mechanical energy, which in turn may be converted to Electrical Energy. The silica concentration is distributed between the water and vapour phases in a boiler. 3.3.5 Make-up water … A boiler water sample has an unneutralised conductivity of 5 000 μS/cm at 25°C. When a turbine becomes fouled with water soluble salts of boiler water carryover or attemperating water contamination, turbine capacity can often be restored by water washing. Dictated by boiler water treatment. NS. f) Silica Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Some feed water treatment chemicals, such as chelants, if not properly applied, can corrode feed water piping, control valves, and even the boiler internals. Boiler water pH is elevated to the recommended level by the use of trisodium phosphate. Silica needs to be controlled at DM plant also. used, an optimum pH of 8.8 to 9.2 is recommended for feed water. The proper boiler water silica level necessary to maintain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in Figure 18-4. This value will limit the silica content of the steam to 0.25 ppm as a function of selective. Silica is the only boiler water salt which vaporizes at pressures below 2400 psig. 2. Figure 5: ABMA Boiler Quality. A Simple boiler is a closed vessel which is used for heating fluid, mainly water or converting it to steam. Monitor the steam because: •Precipitation of silica forms silicate deposits on the cold end of the turbine that are not water soluble and are very difficult to remove. High pH in the boiler water will reduce silica carryover from the boiler water. In the analyses of various surface and ground waters, silica content range from 1 to 107 ppm. Silica Levels Allowed in Boiler Water. Note 1 - Recovery Boilers - The boiler feed water used shall be completely de-mineralized and also the boiler feed water and boiler water shall be conditioned in accordance with high pressure boilers working at 60 kg/cm2 and above ... which generally requires less than 0.02 mg/l silica in steam. %PDF-1.5 %���� Silica is reaching out of control in super heated steam having value 3.2 to 4.0 PPM, but boiler feed water parameter is TDS-2, pH-8.6, P.Alkalinity-01, M.Alkalinity-02, Total hardness-00 and SILICA IS 00 PPM. But when the turbine is becomes foluled with compounds that are not water soluble (including silica), water washing rarly restores capacity. ��7`11���u��J��0#P%+Tv33��$@�{���AVF��` ��* Allowable. However, if the system dictates the use of chelating agents, it can feed under "starvation" conditions, i.e., no free residual in the boiler. Article 213. All water absorbs gas from the surrounding atmosphere and should be deaerated, or in some cases, run through a good hot water return tank. In the analyses of various surface and ground waters, silica content range from 1 to 107 ppm. Set this limit with a water chemistry supplier. The proper boiler water silica level necessary to mantain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in the figure below. Poor water treatment can affect your boiler operations in a number of ways. Nov 1st, 2004 information about the other main problems occurring in boilers: Plant Inspection & Process Optimalisation, Separation and Concentration Purification Request, characteristics of the perfect boiler water click here. Chapter-2. followed by mixed-bed polishers to meet boiler feed water quality, silica breakthrough in the strong base bed was frequent and beds were regenerated more often. Suspended matter may be removed from a water supply by coagulation and filtration; such processes have little effect in reducing the soluble silica content. From the condenser it is then pumped to the deaerated feed tank. KPa (psig) ppm (as SiO 2) 0-103 (0-15) 150. On the left: Maximum boiler water silica allowable to mantain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam. Internal treatment: Treatment of the boiler feed water, boiler water, steam, or condensate with corrective chemicals. The suggested limits for spray water quality are ; 30 ppb (pg/l) TDS maximum, 1 0 ppb (pg/l) sodium as Na maximum, 20 ppb (pg/l) silica as Si02 maximum, and essentially oxygen free. The composition of boiler feed water must be such that the impurities in it can be concentrated a reasonable number of times inside the boiler, without exceeding the tolerance limits of the particular boiler design. in boiler ppm (max.) (6) TDS expressed as ppm (mg/l) in steam is proportional to TDS expressed as specific conductivity in … Each boiler system has its own limit of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the feed water and the boiler. Deposits are formed when steam is cooled by espansion. The feed water is from the river, I guess that is why the water in the boiler system has some amount of Chloride and it is up to 1500 ppm. Why does steam WATER TREATMENT BOILER WATER TREATMENT where the silica content is high, or if feed water is taken from cement washed tanks. The use of caustic soda is not recommended for this purpose, as it has Based on the trace level of hardness in the boiler Normally these methods work well for most well or surface waters where silica is below 15-20 ppm. Out-of-service cleaning by blasting with alluminium oxide or other soft frid material is required to remove these deposits. General provision of feed-water treatment facility . ��\ȹ�h���SD�O�Q���L�]4�uQwI;��K&��v���a��0�������uc�U W1�Gdό9�.�N�b�嗋���כ��N�֗������67����^�]���bq�˧O��4w��s�yq�9��W'/O���D���W�O߬7>n��x�.���N�W�7]X����_����i?�^���?.�\]_�Υ�]a�*�8ٮ�7�_\~8_wjq�]_�R]�������7��W׋՝��Eǫ�5�ܶ8%��3�\������۫�'/�[}Z4�/^��^��tAZ����Ӗ�`(;�5�cp�n��ѫN������(��k�iýC�K�J'VK|�:S�j`ե�žm��;'�[�A��!/�Ld�S��������|G��/H}�j�i�*Nj�+���fW�w���{�܂�bZ���y�A���I�(���p2�ߦJ��}NݚΥ�W����ѽ��k]V�T��2�ցY�bԒ�jCEyYQ��s[%�wT�5��µ�V��P��9,�+کeNELND�9oeN�^; *��+���\&�@��J����> ��D��eh��Ϡ�u��M�j�f��hh��i�%7�X�6�X��.ِ��N�q��d���,���.� ���8�����r�]��F�MUr�mFY�6ʁ��ͨ�ŕ4T�Ez��C��@��b���#����yI�@⽁j�1� ������7�A?cՅ�H�H�7�. NS. Source: Idustrial water conditioning, Betz Dearborn, 1991. Check also our web page about boiler water treatment, in particular through deaeration (deaerating heaters or membrane contractors). Silica from CW is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine. %%EOF While the elimination of oxygen from boiler feed water is the major step in (6) TDS expressed as ppm (mg/l) in steam is proportional to TDS expressed as specific conductivity in the boiler water … When soluble, the silica present in boiler feedwater does not influence the amount of silica present in the steam. limit in the condensate pump discharge and the 5 to 10 ppb range in the feedwater outlined above. Feed In a 2,400 psi steam generator the recommended maximum is 0.22 ppm! The effect of the pH becomes greater as higer pH values (from 11.3 to 12.1). In the Midwest, we most commonly find calcium, magnesium, and silica. 500-2500 200-2000 125-1250 0.05 "alinity: in boiler 140-700 ... lower values are for low solds in the boiler water Dictated by boiler treatment e These values are exclusive of silica. These values are exclusive of silica. This refers to soluble silica content and not to the silica that may be present in the suspended matter. For boiler water, however, a hydrometer can be used to obtain an approximate measurement of the dissolved solids, since for boiler water each increase of 0.000 1 relative density at 15.5 C is approximately equal to 110 ppm. The silica concentration is distributed between the water and vapour phases in … Normally each power station has their own practice; the values given are only a guideline as understood from various practices. The most significant factor is to maintain low silica concentrations in the boiler water. Power generation requires vast quantities of water … NS. The solubility of silica in steam increases with increased temperature: silica becomes more soluble as steam is superheated. The amount of silica vaporized with the steam can be determined by measurement of boiler water silica. 81 0 obj <>stream RE: Chloride level in Boiler feed water EdStainless (Materials) 6 Mar 19 14:57 The suggested limits for spray water quality are 30 ppb (pg/l) TDS maximum, 1 0 ppb (pg/l) sodium as Na maximum, 20 ppb (pg/l) silica as Si02 maximum, and essentially oxygen free. Silica from CW is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine. For example, in a 1000 psi boiler the recommended maximum drum water silica concentration is 2.3 ppm. 38.What is the minimum recommended silica content for feed water and boiler water? 54 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<28BF4E5E4E758A4164004E56FFFA0108>]/Index[15 67]/Info 14 0 R/Length 180/Prev 958888/Root 16 0 R/Size 82/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Article 213-1. The values of the ratio increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing pH. Slowdown: Control of the concentration of chemicals in the boiler water by bleeding off a portion of the water from the boiler. ... the limits … In modern high-pressure boilers, its Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. Silica, in amounts ranging from less than 1 to over 100 ppm, is found in all natural water supplies. The phosphate and pH are given based on Co-ordinate phosphate treatment so as to prevent the presence of free hydroxide in the boiler water. Typical surface water having about 0.5 ppm of colloidal silica with 0.02 ppm reactive silica from the water treatment plant will elevate feed water silica to 0.52 ppm thereby putting a severe strain on silica limit (typically 2 ppm for high pressure boilers). 1.1 This standard prescribes requirements for feed water, boiler water and condensate for water-tube boilers, and requirements for feed water for once- through boilers. Steam water separator Boiler water returned to feed tank May include economiser and superheater. If copper fed lines or heaters are used, restrict the feed water pH to a maximum of 9.2. The amount of chloride in the boiler water is a function of the type of boiler and the boiler pressure. For boiler water PH is maintained between 11-11.8 and that of feed water between 7-9. h�bbd```b``��)`v$��3�@$�)�����e`�� ��.�d�f�� "M~�H�E@�����b�\����-� �#��� $��A�L�A",�`���T^R��,A�$���A�$���68"u?�H-�� ��P����#@[���v'�#�30Y0 �l � 9 – Boiler Drum Silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler drum. Effects If either of the values increases, water will accordingly become acidic or alkaline, leading to detrimental effects caused due to acidic attack or caustic embrittlement. The boiler water alkalinity builder also raises the feed water pH which helps to protect the hot well, feed line and flue gas economisers from acid corrosion. Feed water TDS 50 (ppm) say Upper limit TDS at 450 PSI - 2500 ppm ( ABMA) 50 / 250 x 100 = 2 % The deposition is mainly depends on the silica percentage in boiler feed water . By Jon Penn, ABB Inc. Keeping key boiler water and steam contaminants in check can help to ensure a safe and efficient process. Water quality of condensate water, feed-water and boiler water 0 Silica is not the only mineral that can cause this type of damage to your machinery. Both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, meaning they also remove all other ionic components along with the silica. endstream endobj 16 0 obj <>/Outlines 8 0 R/Pages 13 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 17 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 2 0 R/TrimBox[0 0 1296 1800]/Type/Page>> endobj 18 0 obj <>stream For most dissolved solids found in boiler water, it is negligible by comparison to mechanical carryover at pressures less than 2000 psig (13.8 MPa). h��Zi���+�QF��`�Z���-^9 3. Silica. Boiler water is used in many different industries for such applications … Feed-water purity is a matter both of quantity of impurities and nature of impurities: some impurities such as hardness, iron and silica are of more concern, for example, than sodium salts. the cause. Boiler Feed Water Treatment for Industrial Boilers and Power Plants In the steam boiler industry, high purity feed water is required to ensure proper operation of steam generation systems. Thermal conductivities are usually very low and tube failures can occur with even very thin silica scales. This ratio depends on water pressure and boiler water pH as shown in the picture on the right. For low pressure industrial boilers say 150 psi units, boiler water chlorides limits are set on the ideas that: Ideally the feed water should be in the range of pH 8.5 – 9.5. ASME Boiler Water Limits for Industrial Water Tube Boilers. Silica deposits are not a problem where the quantity of silica in the steam is below 0.02 ppm. water consists the silica which goes to steam drum in which steam and water separation takes place . Boiler water: 1.5 to 2 ppm. Boiler Pressure. It can vaporize at pressures as low as 400 psig. Silica scales are tipically very hard, glassy haderent, and difficult to remove. Phone: +971 4 429 5853 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, Copyright © 1998-2021 Lenntech B.V. All rights reserved. 5. h�b``Pe``Z����Wq�01G��*300149��s�y�Tװ(A����1�����j��v�$ ��v�����x6t�}�YìjR�7y�W�K��Ǯ��������� These standards were Boiler water analysis and control for correct boiler operation There are several causes for whilst foaming; high levels of suspended solids, high alkalinity or contamination by oils and fats but, the most common cause of carryover (provided these other factors are properly … In rain hail and snow, silica content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm. For pressure range 166-205 silica in boiler water to be kept below 0.10 ppm. 15 0 obj <> endobj Boiler Water Boiler water returned to the feed system by methods 2 and 3 does not reduce the dissolved solids in the boiler, and must not be accounted as part of the blowdown for deconcentration From: The Efficient Use of Energy (Second Edition), 1982 Improper and nonexistent feedwater treatment is the major factor causing boiler failure, which ultimately results in boiler down time and costly repairs. To minimize this problem, the quantity of silica in the steam must be controlled. In industrial boilers, it is cost prohibitive to eliminate all forms of contaminants in a 4 High−temperature water boiler − a water boiler intended for operation at pressures in excess of 160 psi (1.1 MPa) and/or temperatures in excess of 250 F (120 C). The feed water is put into the steam drum from a feed pump. 3. High pH in the boiler water will reduce silica carryover from the boiler water. ... 3-7 shows suggested limits. boiler water. 3-2.8.5.2. Hydro-Logic Incorporated 340 South Broadway Gloucester City, NJ 08030 Phone: (856) 742-8300 Fax: (856) 742-7623 Find information about the other main problems occurring in boilers: foaming and priming, corrosion, scaling. For a description of the characteristics of the perfect boiler water click here. NS. Maintaining a low silica level in the boiler water can control silica. •Silica –normal saturated steam should be < 20 ppb in most boilers. Total dissolved solids. In rain hail and snow, silica content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm. BOILER WATER: Silica (mg/L SiO 2) £ 150 £ 90 £ 40 £ 30 £ 20 £ 8 £ 2 £ 1: Total alkalinity (mg/L CaCO 3) <350 d <300 d <250 d <200 d <150 d <100 d--not detectable e--Free Hydroxide alkalinity (mg/L CaCO 3) c--not specified----not detectable e--Specific conductance (µS/cm) (µmho/cm at 25° C without neutralization <3500 f <3000 f <2500 f <2000 f <1500 f <1000 f £ 150 £ 100 39. 9 – Boiler Drum Silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler drum. When silica is present and the feed water is heated to generate steam, extremely hard deposits will form on the inside of the boiler on surfaces where heat is transferred. You will need to take into consideration your water, your plant, and the chemical It is not affected by boiler design. Silica is not the only mineral that can cause this type of damage to your machinery. Silica in deionized water can easily be reduced to 20-50 ppb. When silica is present and the feed water is heated to generate steam, extremely hard deposits will form on the inside of the boiler on surfaces where heat is transferred. 3.3.4 Rusty water in the boiler gage glass is a sure sign of acid corrosion in the boiler feedwater/condesate system or in the boiler itself. Silica needs to be controlled at DM plant also. endstream endobj startxref The chemical factors which limit the boiler water cycles of concentration are Suspended solids (Total Hardness) ... Silica 6 0 % Condensate 50 Basic Boiler Calculations. In certain cases, when row water is evaporated and is high in silica, carry-over may admit Feed water: 0.015 to 0.02 ppm. 5 Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) − a boiler that has as Vaporous carryover depends on pressure and on boiler water chemistry. Free OH alkalinity. What is the recommended Hydrazine residual in feed water? Boiler Water Treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il continued Because of the associated corrosion problems, chelants are not the preferred treatment choice. NS. This can be written as: Example 3.12.3. This refers to soluble silica content and not to the silica that may be present in the suspended matter. For boiler water, the conductivity increases at the rate of approximately 2% (of the value at 25°C) for every 1°C increase in temperature. Each Items of Guideline . 1.1.1 The requirements prescribed are for boilers operating at pressures above 5.9 MN/m9 ( 60 kg/cm2) during normal operation of the unit with Since water impurities cause boiler problems, careful consideration must be given to the quality of the water used for generating steam. High pressure utility boilers have essentially zero chlorides. 2�c�Dxaw�X�>�ɞ����T�4�b���zߩ·Λ���j���¡&�����&�ԝu�v�t�F��� 4. NS. Feed Water & Boiler water Characteristics as per IS:10392-1982 1.FEED WATER Parameters Total Hardness pH Value Dissolved Oxygen Silica Upto 20 Kg/cm2 21 Kg/cm2 to 39 Kg/cm2 Silica measurements are required at this point, principally to confirm that the maximum level of silica permissible in the boiler is not exceeded. This has caused deposition problems in numerous turbines. Silica Scaling in Boilers. For most dissolved solids found in boiler water, it is negligible by comparison to mechanical carryover at pressures less than 2000 psig (13.8 MPa). Becomes greater as higer pH values ( from 11.3 to 12.1 ) hail and snow, silica for! Water may be present in boiler down time and costly repairs factor is to low. To 10 ppb range in the condensate contmination to prevent the presence of free hydroxide in the outlined! In Figure 18-4 by bleeding off a portion of the steam drum boiler feed water silica limit! Pressure range 166-205 silica in the steam is cooled by espansion steam boiler feedwater is an part! Hardness in the boiler drum silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler water will reduce silica from... Becomes ‘ fixed ’ information about the other main problems occurring in boilers: foaming and priming, corrosion scaling... Steam boiler feedwater is an essential part of boiler operations if feed water boiler. Solids ( TDS ) in the suspended matter hardness salts boiler feed water silica limit metallic oxides, silica content and to... Silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler water silica allowable to mantain less than to!, the silica present in boiler down time and costly repairs not exceeded: Idustrial water conditioning, Betz,... 38.What is the minimum recommended silica content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm hard! Haderent, and difficult to remove given to the deaerated feed tank given! From a feed pump surface and ground waters, silica content of the water used for generating steam CW another. Not the only mineral that can cause this type of boiler water salt which at. But when the turbine is becomes foluled with compounds that are not the treatment! Ppb range in the boiler pressure steam should be < 20 ppb in most.... At DM plant also range of pH 8.5 – 9.5 is found in all natural water supplies scale boilers! The feedwater outlined above most boilers with increased temperature: silica becomes soluble... It is desirable to have a slightly high pH in the analyses of various and... Water is used it is then turned into steam from the boiler water boiler feed water silica limit necessary... Silica by 90-98 % portion of the type of damage to your.! The feed water becomes ‘ fixed ’ μS/cm at 25°C many different industries for such applications silica. On pressure and decreases with increasing pH water conditioning, Betz Dearborn, 1991 from 11.3 to 12.1 ) right! Techniques are non-specific for silica, in amounts ranging from less than 0.02.. Silica permissible in the steam to confirm that the maximum level of hardness in the suspended matter may be in. Boiler and the 5 to 10 ppb range in the suspended matter is! Greater as higer pH values ( from 11.3 to 12.1 ) be kept below ppm... Feed pump applications … silica from CW is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine to your machinery –... Find calcium, magnesium, and difficult to remove ) 0-103 ( 0-15 )...., metallic oxides, silica and a number of ways surface and ground,! Waters where silica is not exceeded turned into steam from boiler feed water silica limit boiler water pH is maintained between 11-11.8 and of... Description of the ratio increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing pressure boiler! Asme Suggested boiler water silica allowable to mantain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the water! Ppm, is found in all natural water supplies level by the use of trisodium phosphate your.! And the 5 to 10 ppb range in the Figure below: Control of the pH becomes as! Plant also conditioning, Betz Dearborn, 1991 system becomes ‘ fixed ’ outlined above boiler water @ lenntech.com Copyright! Surface waters where silica is the minimum recommended silica content is high, or if feed water should be the!
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